Deutsch (DE-CH-AT)English (United Kingdom)

business consulting

international development aid

SELECTED PUBLICATIONS > Access to Credit and Business Financing Services


Cover of the Credit Guide, Animal Health and Livestock Marketing Project

Credit Guide

The Guide was designed for small business sector and summarises the sources of credits available in the capital and provincial centres of Mongolia. Each credit institution was presented with a brief history, detailed requirements regarding business plan and collateral, procedures and documents which will be required for a credit application, as well as contacts of the credit department. Two editions of the Guide were printed in 2010 and 2011.





Cover of the Management of Rural Credit Partnerships Manual

Management of Rural Credit Partnerships Manual

The project was actively involved in support of Rural Credit Partnerships (RCPs) in Aktobe region and financed elaboration of the manual to summarise the experience already accumulated in Kazakhstan. The manual describes wide range of issues related to management of a rural credit partnership, credit policy, marketing as well as existing legislation framework.  It is aimed at the management of existing Partnerships as well as at the groups of rural population seeking to establish the new ones. The manual is elaborated in close cooperation with RCPs' association MIRAZ and Agrarian Credit Corporation which supported development of credit cooperation throughout Kazakhstan.

Cover Small Business Financing, Regional Development of SME in Aktobe

Small Business Financing

The main objective of this manual is to give an overview of the general issues related to efficient financing of a small enterprise which is one of the increasingly important topics for the SMEs in Kazakhstan. In clear and understandable way, the manual provides description of the financial flows and financing needs of a small enterprise. The forms of financing are presented and well compared, the tools to evaluate the efficiency of planned investments are

given as well . An entrepreneur is given an opportunity to summarise and improve his/her understanding of investment mechanisms, risks and opportunities connected to credits.  The last chapter of the manual provides basics of financial planning considering the specifics of a small enterprise. The manual was efficiently used during the project’s numerous trainings and individual consultations.

How to apply for a APPA credit - cover

How to apply for the APPA credit

The project has provided support to the Ministry of Agriculture to manage the World Bank which was disbursed to agricultural and rural businesses through local commercial banks. Therefore the manual gives a short overview on key aspects of the credit line. Detailed guidelines how to apply for an APPA loan with an action plan are provided, including elaboration of a farm development plan and a business plan. The manual further provides practical recommendations how to get help from agricultural consultants.




Guidelines for Project Summary Sheet Elaboration

The Guidelines have been elaborated by the Technical Assistance Banking Expert to help credit officers of participating banks to prepare project summary sheets (PSS) as a pre-requisite for credit approval by the World Bank. The PSS intends to provide a general overview of the loan project, its rationale and its financial viability. It is a summarised format, typically presenting the main elements of the business plan. The PSS must give  a general understanding of the company and entrepreneur, explaining what the loan is for and who are the persons behind the project, why the project is proposed to the World Bank for financing, and how the loan will be paid back. The Guidelines were distributed among participating banks and were widely used during the training.



How to Start and Register a Rural Credit and Saving Co-operative Manual

As farmers, small entrepreneurs and owners of household plots had little or no access to financial resources, a new form of credit institution, namely rural savings and credit co-operatives (agricultural consumer credit cooperatives) appeared in the rural areas as an alternative solution. Their activities include mobilisation of members' savings, attraction of loan capital and provision of credits to the members, foremostly for production purposes.

The aim of this manual is to assist people looking to establish a rural credit co-operative with the following:Rural Credit Cooperatives - manual covers

Where to begin?

What steps should be taken to establish a co-operative?

How to correctly prepare documents for registration?

To provide grounded answers to these questions the manual provides outline of  a concept of a rural savings and credit co-operative (RSCC), overveiw of its activities, its differences to other financial structures, commercial banks in particular, and status of its member.



Management of Rural Credit and Savings Cooperatives Manual

This manual waswritten for both members and managers of RSCCs to use as an information source on how a  co-operative can be organised and managed effectively. The manual might also be useful as a reference guide for member and management training activities.

This manual was intentionally forward-looking, introducing concepts and practices that many credit co-operatives were not yet able to adopt immediately. However, given the rapid pace of co-operative development and the need for members and leaders to share a common vision of how their organisations can grow and thrive, this manual provided directions and details required to meet these evolving needs.



Savings Mobilisation Manual

The manual had summarised experience of numerous Saving Mobilisation seminars organised by the project.  The initial stage of the project has revealed that only few managers of credit cooperatives had experience and knowledge to attract and manage savings. Only few of them had basic ideas about benefits from savings services for their cooperative and interest rates. The trainings provided knowledge on various savings services, specifics of the savings products which could be offered by credit cooperatives as well as correlation between savings and credit resourceRural Credit Cooperatives - manual coverss. Therefore the manual concentrated on the weakest points such as how to rollout the savings products and designing appropriate savings products.



Credit Securing in Rural Savings and Credit Cooperatives Manual

The manual reflects on a wide range of issues how a credit cooperative can secure credits issued to its members.  It deals with key principals of credit policy, including conditions which a potential borrower has to fulfil, legal framework, evaluation of credit application and credit size which is needed for a particular business project. It further explains methods of collateral evaluation and checking, and provides case studies how to determine collateral market value.

The final part of the manual deals with situations when a borrower is unable to repay his/her credit and the collateral needs to be sold. The manual has been designed for credit officers and members of credit committees, but could be also useful for cooperative's members and credit applicants.



Accounting and Taxation in Rural Credit and Savings Co-operatives Manual

Accounting of credit cooperatives should be performed according to the common rules and procedures defined by the current legislation. At the same time, it has some specific features which result from the legal status (non-commercial organisations) and type of activities (credit and finance sector) performed by a cooperative.

Good accounting is the basis for proper management and sustainable development of a co-operative. Thus this manual aimed to provide practical guidelines to establish proper accounting and taxation functions which were often considered as problem areas.



Cover Economic Indicators of Agriculture, Support to Rural Credit ImprovementEconomic Indicators of Agricultural Production (for bankers and consultants)

During the time of the Project lack of access to credit was one of the problems hindering development of market oriented agriculture in Kazakhstan. The young banking sector had no experience in financing of agriculture, and a lot of credit offices had difficulties to evaluate business plans for arable and livestock production. This lack was addressed by the Manual which provides economic background for key agricultural products in Kazakhstan including costs calculations, profit and loss analysis, sensitivity analysis, seasonal price trends, etc.